Cleopatra VII



Cleopatra VII Philopator1 queen of Egypt, daughter of Ptolemy XII2 probably by Cleopatra V3, born in year 12 of Ptolemy XII = 70/69, probably in December 70 or early January 694, succeeded Ptolemy XII spring 515, incorporated into the dynastic cult as the Father-loving Goddess Qea Filopatwr6, associated on accession as senior ruler with her brother Ptolemy XIII7, contested seniority with him in year 3 = 50/498, expelled from Egypt mid 489, restored to supreme rule with support from Julius Caesar c. Kal.-a.d. VIII Id. Nov. AUC 706 = c. 25-30 August 4810, associated as senior ruler with her brother Ptolemy XIV as the Father-loving and Sibling-loving Gods, Qeoi FilopatoreV kai Filadelfoi, end of Martius AUC 707 = early January 4711, associated as senior ruler with her son Ptolemy XV probably 1 Thoth year 9 = 4 September 4412, granted rule of territories in Phoenicia, Syria, and Cilicia by Antony in late 37 or early 36 = year 16 = year 1 of a new era13, changing her cult title to the younger father-loving and country-loving goddess: Qea Newtera Filopatwr FilopatriV14, proclaimed "queen of kings" at the Donations of Alexandria autumn 3415, committed suicide in Alexandria by poison, perhaps administered by cobra-bite16, probably on 17 Mesore year 22 = 12 August 3017. Egypt was formally annexed to the Roman Republic with effect from 6 Mesore year 1 of Augustus = Kal. Sex. AUC 724 = 1 August 3018.

Cleopatra VII's titles as king of Egypt were19:

Horus               (1) wr(t) nb(t)-nfrw Ax(t)-zH20
                      (2) wrt twt-n-jt.s21
Nomen             olwpdrt nTrt mr(t)-jt.s22

Cleopatra VII probably had one23 liaison and three24 marriages.

Cleopatra VII first conducted a liaison with C. Julius Caesar, consul and dictator of the Roman Republic25, as his umpteenth mistress26, began late October AUC 706 = mid August 4827, ended by his assassination28 Id. Mart. AUC 710 = 14 March 4429. Cleopatra VII probably had one child30 by this liaison31: Ptolemy XV Caesarion32

Cleopatra VII secondly probably married her brother Ptolemy XIII33, November AUC 706 = c. September 4834. The marriage was ended by his death on a.d. VI Kal. Apr. AUC 707 = 13 January 4735.

Cleopatra VII thirdly probably married her brother Ptolemy XIV36, end of Martius or Aprilis AUC 707 = c. January 4737. The marriage was ended by his death in mid 4438.

Cleopatra VII fourthly initiated a liaison at Tarsus39 in 4140 and later probably married41 as his fifth wife42 M. Antonius, triumvir of the Roman Republic43, probably in 3744. The marriage was terminated by his suicide in Alexandria45 on Kal. Sex. AUC 724 = 1 August 3046. She had three children by this liaison and marriage: Alexander Helios47, his twin Cleopatra Selene48, by whom she had further descendants49, and Ptolemy Philadelphus50.

Update Notes:

11 Feb 2002: Added individual trees
1 March 2002: Split into separate entry
14 April 2002: Added discussion of Skeat's reexamination of pOxy 12.1453.
3 May 2002: Added reference to Macrobius for the error in implementation of the Julian calendar
8, 11, 21 May 2002: Expanded discussion of multiple solutions for Macrobius.
12 May 2002: Corrected Roman and Egyptian date equations as necessary
17 May 2002: Covered Skeat's supporting arguments for 8 Mesore as the start of Augustus' reign.
30 June 2002: Reworked Roman civil calendar discussion again to give my final solution. Corrected Roman and Egyptian date equations as necessary
27 Jan 2003: Fine tuning of the calendrical discussion to accommodate for changed views on the pCarlsberg 9 lunar calendar.
6 April 2003: Set up links to threaded discussion of earlier Roman dates.
18 May 2003: Changed Plutarch Xrefs to the Lacus Curtius edition; pointed to the right bookmarks in Macrobius
18 June 2003: Updated Xrefs to translations of Caesar; added Xref to online Latin text of Varro
23 Oct 2003: Added Xrefs to online Appian
24 Feb 2004: Added Xrefs to online Strabo; relinked Suetonius Xrefs to LacusCurtius edition
24 March 2004: Added Xref to Jones paper in ZPE 129 on Augustan calendars
13 Sep 2004: Add Xref to online Eusebius
19 Oct 2004: Removed redundant discussion of Roman chronology.
31 Dec 2004: Added linkage to annotated article from Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt
19 Jan 2005: Updated Xrefs on Alexandian Wars to Forumromanum edition
11 Mar 2005: Added Greek transcription, link to DDBDP transcript of pOxy 12.1453
16 Sep 2006: Add links to Packard Humanities DB, Canon at Attalus
28 May 2007: Added Xref to BASP paper
8 Feb 2009: Note that the second era was sometimes used standalone.
8 Dec 2010: Fixed broken Perseus & DDbDP links
31 Dec 2010: Comment on Mary Beard's argument against accepting 69 as a birth year.

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